ru / en

#### name

Orlov Alexander Ivanovich

professor

#### Research interests

статистические методы, организационно-экономическое моделирование. Разработал новую область прикладной статистики — статистику объектов нечисловой природы

0

## Articles count: 145

• pdf  194.623kb doc 194.623kb Views: 448 Date: 31.05.2016
Description
One of the "points of growth" of applied statistics is methods of reducing the dimension of statistical data. They are increasingly used in the analysis of data in specific applied research, such as sociology. We investigate the most promising methods to reduce the dimensionality. The principal components are one of the most commonly used methods to reduce the dimensionality. For visual analysis of data are often used the projections of original vectors on the plane of the first two principal components. Usually the data structure is clearly visible, highlighted compact clusters of objects and separately allocated vectors. The principal components are one method of factor analysis. The new idea of factor analysis in comparison with the method of principal components is that, based on loads, the factors breaks up into groups. In one group of factors, new factor is combined with a similar impact on the elements of the new basis. Then each group is recommended to leave one representative. Sometimes, instead of the choice of representative by calculation, a new factor that is central to the group in question. Reduced dimension occurs during the transition to the system factors, which are representatives of groups. Other factors are discarded. On the use of distance (proximity measures, indicators of differences) between features and extensive class are based methods of multidimensional scaling. The basic idea of this class of methods is to present each object as point of the geometric space (usually of dimension 1, 2, or 3) whose coordinates are the values of the hidden (latent) factors which combine to adequately describe the object. As an example of the application of probabilistic and statistical modeling and the results of statistics of non-numeric data, we justify the consistency of estimators of the dimension of the data in multidimensional scaling, which are proposed previously by Kruskal from heuristic considerations. We have considered a number of consistent estimations of dimension of models (in regression analysis and in theory of classification). We also give some information about the algorithms for reduce the dimensionality in the automated system-cognitive analysis
• pdf  225.568kb doc 225.568kb Views: 140 Date: 30.11.2016
Description
In modern conditions of quantitative and qualitative degradation of science in general and economics in particular, especially in our country, the scientific direction of "Controlling" stands out not only for its activity, but also the rapid intensive and extensive growth. This work is the summary of the main publications of scientific results on controlling obtained at the Laboratory of economicmathematical methods in controlling of Scientific and Educational Center "Controlling and management innovations" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University. We discuss the concept of "method", "tool", "mechanism", "algorithm" in relation to the Controlling. Adequate use of these terms is necessary for the formulation of sound scientific results, and to provide their perception of the scientific community. Innovations in the field of management in industry and other sectors of the economy based, in particular, on the use of new adequate organizational and economic methods. Controlling in this area - it is the development of relevant management procedures used and the newly established (implanted) organizational and economic methods to the task. Development, systematization and application of modern mathematical tools of controlling are the main theme of our work. We have considered the problems of controlling new areas - controlling risks, quality controlling, controlling organizational and economic support for control tasks in the aerospace industry, controlling research activities. We have also obtained new scientific results in controlling personnel and ecological safety controlling
• pdf  292.565kb doc 292.565kb Views: 987 Date: 31.10.2014
Description
In accordance with the new paradigm of mathematical statistics the statistics of objects of nonnumerical nature (statistics of nonnumerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics) is one of the four main areas of mathematical statistics. Statistics of objects of nonnumerical nature consists of a central core - statistics in spaces of arbitrary nature - and statistical theories of analysis of specific types of non-numeric data. To identify possibilities of application of statistics of objects of nonnumerical nature it is useful to explore the multiformity of objects of non-numeric nature. This is the subject of this article. We have considered the results of measurements at scales other than absolute; binary relations; dichotomous (binary) data; sets. We have also analyzed the objects of non-numerical nature as statistical data, and their importance in the formation of statistical or mathematical model of a real phenomenon, as a result of data analysis
• pdf  232.726kb doc 232.726kb Views: 915 Date: 30.09.2015
Description
In many areas - the economy, quality management, medicine, the ecology, in safety of flights and others - the problems of analysis, estimation and management of risks have much in common. Therefore, we consider it necessary to develop a general theory of risk. Approaches and methods of this theory will allow in the future solving problems of uniform risk management in specific subject areas. Based on the analysis of scientific publications and industry regulations it must be noted that private risk theories tend to become isolated within themselves, create their own internal standards and systems of regulations. Separately - for banking, separately - for safety, separately - for industrial accidents, etc. In order to construct a general theory of risk we analyze use of the term "risk" in various fields, consider the variety of types of risks, give the basic definitions in the field of analysis, estimation and management of risk. We discuss planetary risks (at Earth as a whole), global risks (at the level of one or more States), financial risks, commercial risks (risks at the level of the immediate environment of the company), and production (internal, operational) risks relating to the activities of individual enterprises (organizations), personal risks. Instruments of total risk theory allow us equally solve the basic problems of analysis, estimation and management of risk for all areas
• pdf  158.904kb doc 158.904kb Views: 912 Date: 31.10.2014
Description
One of the important problems of marketing - the choice moments of output of new models (brands) of products to the market. In the article for the first time in scientific periodicals we have proposed a sketch economic-mathematical optimization model for selection of time of output of new brands to market. We have received the calculation formulas for the moments of the output of new brands
• pdf  291.847kb doc 291.847kb Views: 887 Date: 30.09.2014
Description
Science is considered as a branch of the national economy. We discuss the relationship of areas of human activity, applied science and fundamental science. As an example, the development of the fundamental theory of decision-making and expertise are considered in the implementation of applied researches in the aviation and rocket-space industry. Is emphasized that the major achievement in science - the novelty of the results. We discuss the problem of estimation the effectiveness of scientific activity, the advantages and disadvantages of estimates based on bibliometric databases and citation indices, we show the basic role of expert technologies. Is examined the role of globalization and patriotism in the development of science. Is substantiated the principal difference between acquiring knowledge and promote research results. We consider it necessary to conduct detailed studies into the science of science and development based on these science-based recommendations for the management of science
• pdf  12.554.998kb doc 12.554.998kb Views: 469 Date: 31.10.2016
Description
Adequate and effective assessment of the efficiency, effectiveness and the quality of scientific activities of specific scientists and research teams is crucial for any information society and a society based on knowledge. The solution to this problem is the subject of scientometrics and its purpose. The current stage of development scientometrics differs greatly from his previous appearance in the open as well as paid on-line access to huge amount of detailed data on a large number of indicators on individual authors and on scientific organizations and universities. The world has well-known bibliographic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, Astrophysics Data System, PubMed, MathSciNet, zbMATH, Chemical Abstracts, Springer, Agris, or GeoRef. In Russia, it is primarily the Russian scientific citing index (RSCI). RSCI is a national information-analytical system, accumulating more than 9 million publications of Russian scientists, as well as the information about citation of these publications from more than 6,000 Russian journals. There is too much information; it is so-called "Big data". But the problem is how to make sense of these large data, more precisely, to identify the meaning of scientometric indicators) and thus to convert them into great information ("great information"), and then apply this information to achieve the objective of scientometrics, i.e. to transform it into a lot of knowledge ("great knowledge") about the specific scientists and research teams. The solution to this problem is creating a "Scientific smart metering system" based on the use of the automated system-cognitive analysis and its software tools – an intellectual system called "Eidos". The article provides a numerical example of the creation and application of Scientometric intelligent measurement system based on a small amount of real scientific data that are publicly available using free on-line access to the RSCI
• pdf  270.682kb doc 270.682kb Views: 1270 Date: 30.09.2014
Description
We continue the series of articles about the history of statistics. We discuss the development of nonparametric and applied statistics in our country in 1930 - 1980 years. We have presented the studies of the great statisticians of the twentieth century, such as N.V. Smirnov, L.N. Bolshev, V.V. Nalimov. American statistics show Russian debate about applied statistics. We have briefly listed the process of creation of the All-Union Statistical Association (1990) and its further developments
• pdf  275.586kb doc 275.586kb Views: 2192 Date: 31.03.2014
Description
In the article we have considered A. N. Kolmogorov and N. V. Smirnov papers dedicated to one-sided and two-sided goodness-of-fit and homogeneity tests. It has been shown that the term "Kolmogorov - Smirnov test" used incorrectly. We have also given the recommendations on use of the terms "Kolmogorov test", "Smirnov test", "test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov type" and discussed omega-square test (Cramer-von Mises–Smirnov test). Typical errors in the application of these criterions have been considered, in particular to test for normality of the distribution of measurement results
• pdf  188.287kb doc 188.287kb Views: 408 Date: 27.01.2016
Description
In many applications, we study the time series (or a random process), which is the sum of the periodic deterministic function of time and random errors that distort the periodic signal. It is required to estimate the length of the period and the periodic component. It does not assume that the periodic function is included in any parameter family of functions, such as finite sums of sines and cosines. It is obvious that the assumption of occurrence of a periodic function in parametric family does not meet the characteristics of the real world, ie, is conditional, internal mathematical (look for the keys under the lamp because there is a light, not in the bush, where lost, because there are dark). For similar reasons, it is impossible to assume that the distribution function of the random errors is included in any parameter family of distributions. In accordance with the new paradigm of mathematical statistics in this article we studied the problem of nonparametric estimation (minimum) length of the period and the periodic component of the signal. On the basis of natural variation and scope of indicators is suggested a new class of nonparametric estimators of the length of the period and the periodic component in the time series. Based on the general results of statistics of objects of non-numeric nature we proved the consistency of these estimates. From the practical point of view it is necessary to minimize the numerical (one parameter - ability length of period of time) one or more of the 66 functionals, described in the article