ru / en

name

Orlov Alexander Ivanovich

professor

Research interests

статистические методы, организационно-экономическое моделирование. Разработал новую область прикладной статистики — статистику объектов нечисловой природы

0

Articles count: 155

• pdf  284.498kb doc 284.498kb Views: 925 Date: 28.02.2015
Description
Inventory management (in other words, logistics) is an integral part of the work of firms, companies and organizations. We are talking about stocks of raw materials, fuel, tools, components, semi-finished products, finished products for industrial (or agricultural) firms, about stocks of goods to distribution centers, warehouses, shops, workplaces sellers, finally consumers. Stocks spent all the time and supplemented on various rules adopted in the firm. Optimization of these rules, ie, optimal inventory management, gives a big economic effect. The mathematical theory of inventory management, based on the models of movement of flows of goods, is an important area of economic-mathematical research. The classical model of inventory management proposed in 1915 by F. Harris is one of the simplest and most illustrative examples of application of the mathematical apparatus for decision-making in the economic field. This model is commonly referred to as the Wilson model, because this model became known after the publication of R.G. Wilson in 1934. The formula of the optimum batch size (the so-called "the formula of the square root"), obtained in the Wilson model, is widely used on various stages of production and distribution, since this formula is practically useful for decision-making in the inventory management, in particular, for generating significant economic effect. However, contrary to popular belief, by means of this formula it is impossible to calculate the optimal batch size (although it is a necessary step on the path of its finding). In strict economic-mathematical analysis of Wilson model, conducted in the article, it is shown that the formula of square root does not give the optimal batch size. We have given the algorithm for calculating the optimal batch size. It has been found that the formula of the square root gives asymptotically optimal plan. We have studied the stability of the conclusions in the economic-mathematical model and considered an example of the practical application of the classical model of inventory management
• pdf  270.188kb doc 270.188kb Views: 926 Date: 31.03.2015
Description
Econometrics is one of the most effective mathematical tools of controlling. The article deals with general problems of application of econometric methods in solving problems of controlling. Econometric methods - is primarily a statistical analysis of concrete economic data, of course, with the help of computers. In our country, they are still relatively little known, even though we have the most powerful scientific school in the foundations of econometrics - the probability theory. The article shows that to decide the problems of controlling is necessary to apply econometric methods. Classification of econometric tools can be carried out on various grounds: on methods, by type of data, in tasks, etc. Mass introduction of software products, including modern econometric analysis tools of concrete economic data can be regarded as one of the most effective ways to accelerate scientific and technological progress. The whole arsenal currently used econometric and statistical techniques (methods) can be divided into three streams: high econometric (statistical) technology; classical econometric (statistical) technology, low (inadequate, obsolete) econometric (statistical) technology. The main problem of modern econometrics is to ensure that the concrete econometric and statistical studies used only the first two types of technology. To get a broader representation of the use of econometric methods in the management of production organization we analyze basic textbook "Organization and planning of engineering production (production management)," prepared by the Department of "Economics and organization of production" of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. It has more than 20 times using econometric methods and models that testify to the effectiveness of such a tool of manager as econometrics
• pdf  273.905kb doc 273.905kb Views: 927 Date: 30.11.2015
Description
The real facts presented in this article, demonstrate the great importance in today's world of strategic management, methods of analyses of innovations and investments and the role of the theory of decision-making in these economic disciplines. We have given the retrospective analysis of the development of nuclear physics research. For the development of fundamental and applied science in the second half of the twentieth century, we had a very great importance of the two events: the decision of US President Roosevelt to deploy nuclear program (adopted in response to a letter from Einstein) and the coincidence in time between the completion of the construction of nuclear bomb and the end of World War II. The nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has determined the developments in science and technology for the entire second half of the twentieth century. For the first time in the entire history of the world the leaders of the leading countries clearly seen that fundamental research can bring great practical benefit (from the point of view of the leaders of countries). Namely, they can give the brand new super-powerful weapon. The consequence was a broad organizational and financial support of fundamental and deriving from them applied research. Is analyzed the influence of fundamental and applied research on the development and effective use of new technology and technical progress. We consider the development of mathematical methods of research and information technology, in particular, the myth of "artificial intelligence"
• pdf  230.165kb doc 230.165kb Views: 929 Date: 31.03.2015
Description
Requirements for the professional training of сontrollers include, in particular, the requirements for an intelligent tool that controllers must possess. One of such tools is the econometrics. Organization of training, in particular, preparation of curricula, programs, teaching materials and textbooks, involves discussion of the scope and content of the relevant discipline. We have given the description of the econometric tools of controlling, including the courses of "Econometrics-1" and "Econometrics-2", which the Department of the IBM-2 "Economics and organization of production" is on the faculty "Engineering and Business Management" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University. We have discussed the external environment of econometrics and the necessary changes in it. For example, the course of "Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics" is the basis for the study of econometrics. However, it has to be brought into line with modern requirements. In particular, it is necessary to consider such things as random elements with values in an arbitrary space, empirical and theoretical means in such spaces, to prove the laws of large numbers in general statements. Simultaneously with the specified extension course content is reasonable to exclude from the program methods based on those assumptions are not met in the concrete economic situations. In particular, we have to eliminate the one-sample and two-sample Student's t tests and replace them with the corresponding nonparametric tests. We do not need the "classical" and geometric probability, etc. We have given the importance of the problem of constructing integral indicators in various problems of econometrics; issues of analysis of the situation by means of a system of indicators are discussed in detail
• pdf  273.549kb doc 273.549kb Views: 934 Date: 30.01.2015
Description
The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics) is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only) which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the model of the sample as a set of independent identically distributed random variables. In this article we have considered the basic probabilistic models for obtaining non-numeric data. Namely, the models of dichotomous data, results of paired comparisons, binary relations, ranks, the objects of general nature. We have discussed the various options of probabilistic models and their practical use. For example, the basic probabilistic model of dichotomous data - Bernoulli vector (Lucian) i.e. final sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, for which the probabilities of success may be different. The mathematical tools of solutions of various statistical problems associated with the Bernoulli vectors are useful for the analysis of random tolerances; random sets with independent elements; in processing the results of independent pairwise comparisons; statistical methods for analyzing the accuracy and stability of technological processes; in the analysis and synthesis of statistical quality control plans (for dichotomous characteristics); the processing of marketing and sociological questionnaires (with closed questions like "yes" - "no"); the processing of socio-psychological and medical data, in particular, the responses to psychological tests such as MMPI (used in particular in the problems of human resource management), and analysis of topographic maps (used for the analysis and prediction of the affected areas for technological disasters, distributing corrosion, propagation environmentally harmful pollutants, various diseases (including myocardial infarction), in other situations), etc.
• pdf  245.893kb doc 245.893kb Views: 936 Date: 29.02.2016
Description
Statistical methods are widely used in domestic feasibility studies. However, for most managers, economists and engineers, they are exotic. This is because modern statistical methods are not taught in the universities. We discuss the situation, focusing on the statistical methods for economic and feasibility studies, ie, econometrics. In the world of science, econometrics has a rightful place. There are scientific journals in econometrics, Nobel Prizes in Economics are awarded to series of researches in econometrics. The situation in the field of scientific and practical work and especially the teaching of econometrics in Russia is disadvantaged. Often, individual particular constructions replace econometrics in general, such as those related to regression analysis. In econometrics we select three types of scientific and applied activities: development and study of methods of applied statistics, taking into account the specifics of economic data; development and study of econometric models, in accordance with the specific needs of economic science and practice; the use of econometric methods for statistical analysis of specific economic data. This article describes these three types of scientific and applied activities. We discuss the specificity of economic data. We show the importance of economic non-numeric values. We discuss the statistics of interval data - scientific direction at the joint of metrology and statistics. We give the representation of the econometric models. Problems of application of econometric methods are considered as an example of inflation. We discuss the statistics and econometrics as the field of scientific and practical activities. We have examined econometric methods in practical and training activities
• pdf  289.548kb doc 289.548kb Views: 948 Date: 30.04.2015
Description