Polulyakh Alla Anatolevna
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The article describes the history of the institute called "Magarach" and the formation of the world's ampelographic collections in the Crimea and Kuban, provides data on the genetic diversity of the original parent Crimean collection of grape, carries out the impact of its long-term ampelo-breeding and genetic work. We have found the best ampelo-genetic rennets, both in the Crimea (zoned in Russia and abroad varieties of Academician Avidzba, Pervanets Magaracha, Jubilee Magarach, Antei magarachsky, Nimrang ustoichivii, Podarok Magaracha, Riesling Magaracha Novoukrainsky Rannii, Granatovii Magaracha, Krymchanin, Rkatsiteli Magaracha, Spartanets Magaracha, Tavkveri Magaracha, Citronnii Magaracha, promising varieties Livya, Solnetchnaja grozd, etc..) and in the Kuban region. Magarach ampelographic collection was and still is the parent of many national collections of gene pools of, the former Soviet republics, including the Russian Federation as well: Anapa ampelographic collection in the North Caucasus NIISiV has 3356 samples collected from 41 countries, including ones from the institute of "Magarach" (about 40%). Using its base we had a comprehensive biological and economic evaluation of the outstanding genotypes for ampelo-genetic and clonal selection – such as zoned Bogotyanovsky, Helios, Dolgogdannii, Kubattik, Libya K, Arathi, Preobragenie, Rochefort K, Chrizolit, Citrine, Anthracite, promising varieties Annie, Baikonur, Gourmet Kra, Memory Master Nesvet Gift, Jubilee Novocherkasska, etc.
The article highlights the issues of grape plants resistance to low temperatures; it is an urgent problem for all wine-growing regions of the world, located in the zone of risky agriculture. Losses caused by frost, indicate long-standing necessity of perfection of assortment in terms of enhancing its hardiness by enriching more resistant genotypes obtained both through the introduction or naturalization, as well as from the crossing of indigenous with interspecies hybrids. Methodology for evaluating frost resistance properties of the material served as a preparation for the originality of his research and experimental evaluation of the unique divisibility properties of the aim. Thus, we initially conducted hardening of matured cuttings at positive temperature plus 8 plus 4 ° C for 14 days (I quenching phase) and a negative temperature minus 5 ° C-minus 7 ° C for 9 days and minus 10 ° C-1 day (II hardening phase). Then the cuttings we frozen in the temperature range from minus 16 ° C to the next steps of consistent freezing (minus 16 ° C - 2 days; minus 18 ° C - 2 days; minus 20 ° C - 2 days; minus 22 ° C – 1day, minus 24 ° C - 1 day, minus 26 ° C - 1 day, minus 28 ° C - 1 day and minus 30 ° C - 8 hours). After freezing of cuttings of each variety, the sample was placed on the 3 days in the refrigerator at the temperature of + 2 ° C to their gradual thawing. Cuttings were grown at room temperature on water. As a result, obtained by the accounting: the lowest frost-resistance among the studied forms of parental Crimean origins was found in grades of Shabash, Soldayya and Solnechnodolinsky; the varieties of Dzevat kara, Kokur bely, Kokur cherny, Misket, Misgyuli kara, Sari Pandas were set as a weak level (-20 °C); Aybatly, Kefesiya, Kok pandas and Ekim kara have average level up to -22 °C; the highest frost-resistance - 24 °C – was shown by Khersonessky and Kapselsky. Also, we have identified synthetic frost-resistant F1-population and plus-transgressive selection form