№ 108(4), April, 2015
Public date: 30.04.2015
Archive of journal: Articles count 91, 194 kb

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionRecently, the process of monetization of the evaluation of scientific activity was initiated, and there is a need for quantitative methods and comparable assessment of the effectiveness and quality of work of a scientist. There are numerous methods to reward for these results. What is common to all these techniques covered is the role of the Hirsch index or hindex. By itself, this index is well founded. However, in connection with the practice of application of hindex in our environment in the minds of the scientific community it has started some kind of mania, which the author proposes to call "Hirschmania". This mania is characterized by elevated unhealthy interest to the value of the Hirsch index, especially inadequate artificial exaggeration of this value, as well as a number of negative implications of this interest. In this article we have made an attempt to briefly describe some of the negative effects of this new mental infection that hit the public consciousness of the scientific community. And also we want to identify ways of overcoming at least some of their causes. This is the problem solved in this work. To solve the formulated problem, we propose to apply multicriteria approach based on information theory, namely those options, which are implemented in an automated systemcognitive analysis (ASCanalysis) and its software tools  intelligent system called "Eidos

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn this article we consider a mathematical model of effect of noncompliance with the prevention of HIV/AIDS among a heterogeneous population based on known model by Kimbir et al (2006). The effectiveness of a condom use and implications of noncompliance with a population of preventive measures (condoms) are the aim of this research work. In this work, with definite coefficients, nonlinear model is used, which consists of system of six differential equations for different population groups (six groups of the population) to obtain the model equations. Compared with the existing model by Kimbir, the proposed model to a large extent, takes into account the birth rate of the studied population. Numerical simulation of the model equations shows that reducing the rate of transmission of HIV/AIDS can be effectively achieved within a certain time, and only where relatively high condom efficacy and high compliance by susceptible and infected are observed. From the obtained results, we can see that the control of HIV/AIDS in the heterosexual population depends on the net compliance and effectiveness of the recommended prevention (condom use). As a recommendation, the model focuses on intensive training and ongoing campaigns to raise the awareness of the population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies on the effective use of the condom

ON SOME APPROACHES TO ECONOMICMATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SMALL BUSINESS
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionSmall business is an important part of modern Russian economy. We give a wide panorama developed by us of possible approaches to the construction of economicmathematical models that may be useful to describe the dynamics of small businesses, as well as management. As for the description of certain problems of small business can use a variety of types of economicmathematical and econometric models, we found it useful to consider a fairly wide range of such models, which resulted in quite a short description of the specific models. In this description of the models brought to such a level that an experienced professional in the field of economicmathematical modeling could, if necessary, to develop their own specific model to the stage of design formulas and numerical results. Particular attention is paid to the use of statistical methods of nonnumeric data, the most pressing at the moment. Are considered the problems of economicmathematical modeling in solving problems of small business marketing. We have accumulated some experience in application of the methodology of economicmathematical modeling in solving practical problems in small business marketing, in particular in the field of consumer goods and industrial purposes, educational services, as well as in the analysis and modeling of inflation, taxation and others. In marketing models of decision making theory we apply rankings and ratings. Is considered the problem of comparing averages. We present some models of the life cycle of small businesses  flow model projects, model of capture niches, and model of niche selection. We discuss the development of research on economicmathematical modeling of small businesses

LIMIT THEOREMS FOR KERNEL DENSITY ESTIMATORS IN SPACES OF ARBITRARY NATURE
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionSome estimators of the probability density function in spaces of arbitrary nature are used for various tasks in statistics of nonnumerical data. Systematic exposition of the theory of such estimators had a start in our work [2]. This article is a direct continuation of the article [2]. We will regularly use references to conditions and theorems of the article [2], in which we introduced several types of nonparametric estimators of the probability density. We studied more linear estimators. In this article we consider particular cases  kernel density estimates in spaces of arbitrary nature. When estimating the density of the onedimensional random variable, kernel estimators become the ParzenRosenblatt estimators. Asymptotic behavior of kernel density estimators in the general case of an arbitrary nature spaces are devoted to Theorem 1  8. Under different conditions we prove the consistency and asymptotic normality of kernel density estimators. We have studied uniform convergence. We have introduced the concept of "preferred rate differences" and studied nuclear density estimators based on it. We have also introduced and studied natural affinity measures which are used in the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of kernel density estimators. We have found the asymptotic behavior of dispersions of kernel density estimators and considered the examples including kernel density estimators in finitedimensional spaces and in the space of squareintegrable functions

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn this article we propose a method that uses the apparatus of the theory of fuzzy sets, together with the fivefactor model of Altman in assessing the creditworthiness of an enterprise. Altman's model works in two ways: It applies the root mean square (RMS) integral approximation for the exact calculation of quantitative assessment of creditworthiness (probability of bankruptcy), and using the device of fuzzy sets for ordered sets by the degree of confidence in the resulting probability. In this paper we conducted simulation procedure for the credit assessment and showed the capabilities of the model. The model input parameters , forms system inputs (input variables), allowing you to get the value of the parameter z of Altman. With the help of Altman's model, approximating function L6, the decision function I(p) and the algorithm for calculating preference we obtain the number of the set i to which belongs a number of ordered sets as fuzzy logic . On the selected simulation parameters, stable statistics can be obtained. Altman's model with the use of computational function allows real values of the input parameters of the enterprise replaced by random values of the simulation model. This technique allows, as shown by the results of computational experiments, the creditor to obtain additional information on the creditworthiness of the investigated enterprise and make a more informed conclusion about its financial condition, which speeds up the decision on the possibility of issuing the required credit. The development of method of estimating fuzzy logic can be applied to other models of assessing the creditworthiness of a company: Davydov's model, Zaitseva's, Saifullina's, Kadykova's and others with appropriate modification

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionMetric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in noninertial reference frame. Maxwell's equations and YangMills theory are converted to the moving axes in metric describes the acceleration and rotating reference frame in the general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity of the system from time. The article discusses the known effects associated with acceleration and (or) the rotation of the reference frame  the Sagnac effect, the effect of the StewartTolman and other similar effects. The numerical model of wave propagation in noninertial reference frames in the case when potential depending of one, two and three spatial dimensions has been developed. It has been shown in numerical experiment that the acceleration of the reference system leads to retardation effects, as well as to a violation of the symmetry of the wave front, indicating that there is local change of wave speed

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn the article we consider integrative codes of the elements of discrete systems for the first time. It is shown that these codes in the general case divided into group and system parts. The group part of the code characterizes a set of elements with identical value of the sign as a whole. System part of the code appears when different sets are combined into the system. We have established that in using the weighted average of these parts of integrative code we can express information measures of combinatorial, probabilistic and synergistic approaches to determine the quantity of information. It is concluded that there is an integrative coding relationship between these approaches, and the existing types of information have genetic relationship. It is shown that the information considered in the synergetic approach is genetically of primary in relation to the information, which operates on the combinatorial and probabilistic approaches. Also, we have answered the question why the different conceptions of information lead to identical formulas to measure it

Description
In herbaceous communities of annual crops dominate clean sowings, which are characterized by high productivity. However, it is very poorly adapted, different weak transformation of matter and energy and stronger exposed to stressful situations as compared to natural systems. In agroecosystems only structural diversity can supporting many processes on a much aligned level. In agrolandscape system creates mixed sowings that are practiced in forage production of many areas. Great importance is the selection of crops for joint sowing because the relationship of species in created systems are poorly investigated and documented in the literature is not enough. Investigations were carried out on experimental plots on the farm called "Zavety Ilyicha" of the Leningrad district and training farm called "Kuban" in Krasnodar. Formation of joint sowings in different moistening conditions, level of fertility, chemical and physical condition of the soil is a very big problem. Cultivation of different cultures in joint sowings significantly influences the terms the onset of main phases of vegetation in certain species. For example, the placement of sorghum between rows of soybean noticeably extended the period of its vegetation (57 days); acceleration of interphase periods was marked for amaranth; height of plant noticeably was changed, leaf area was varied, indicator of competitive features of individual species was differed. The existence of the relationship between the method of sowing crops, their farming practices and composition of species and population of microflora, mesofauna of soil, yield of dry matter and grain was observed

PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF AGROLANDSCAPES IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF EDGE
DescriptionStudies of ecosystems allow estimation of difficult processes (physical, chemical and biological), taking place in them and determine how to manage them. At the heart of the natural systems there are freely interacting populations of different taxons, productivity of their aboveground structures, details of which are quite limited, and as underground systems, the data have even less information. In the late 60s and early 70s in the XX century a lot of information appeared associated with problems of environment, its pollution, lack of energy of food resources, clean water; it determined the root cause of the reaction of the population of developed countries on the aggravation of relations between society of people and habitat. Existed for a long time the concept of the exploitation of nature, which reflected on using soils, forests, water and other sources and which showed the power of mankind and its technical power over nature. In reality, this concept was just a common strategy of aphids sucking their environment. Understanding the real situation on the different levels of consciousness of the population defined situation of practical and scientific research in the field of ecology of different directions  chemical, biological, mathematical and other sciences. Development of ecology today will evolve to meet conservation and sustainable development of the biosphere, which experiencing constant anthropogenic pressure. An important problem of agrolandscape systems is an objective assessment of their productivity. Among the issues that determine the development of agricultural systems there are the natural conditions and soil fertility, crop dynamics over the years, the duration of the growing season of individual taxons, as well as the possibility of create of mixed crops, different type of life form, ecological features, physiological diversity of biochemical characteristics. Sowings this type allow, under certain conditions, obtaining stable yields under any climate dynamics and significant reduction of soil erosion. Combined sowing that is practiced in South East Asia, particularly in China, where the main components are the soybean and corn. The usefulness of mixed crops is the stability of yields over the years and the ability to emphasize their resistance to dry weather conditions

THE METHODS OF REPRODACTION OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA MILL.
DescriptionThe article presents results of the study of lavender reproduction (Lavandula angustifolia Mill) with methods of generative reproduction (seeds), vegetative reproduction (cutting, layening, divide of buch), clonal microreproduction using the culture in vitro. The method of cloned microreproduction based on the culture of the isolated meristems which provides genetic identity of regenerated plants to initial forms and high coefficients of reproduction, improvement of landing material from fungal and bacterial infection, and also release from viruses at a combination with methods of thermotherapy and a chemotherapy is the most effective for the solution of objectives of seed farming of a lavender. As a material for carrying out researches we had plants of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill), Sineva sorts, Stepnaya and perspective selection samples 3379 and 31017. Apical meristems 0,21,0 mm high isolated from top and axilary buds of a stalk of annual plants have been used as explant. Murasige and Skuga (MS) used as a basic nutrient medium for cultivation of the isolated meristems. Explants have been cultivated in the cultural room with 2526 0C  temperature, lighting – 23 lx, relative humidity – 6070%. It has been established that both April and October are the best month for isolation of meristems correspond calendar to phases of spring and autumn growth at the lavender donor plants and that optimum is an agar nutrient medium of MS, added with kinetin (1,0 mg/l) and GC (1,0 mg/l); frequency of regeneration of all studied genotypes was 90,0100,0 %. Feature of morphogenesis of lavender meristems in vitro culture was already at the first stage of clonal microreproduction as there was a multiple shoot formation. Studying of features of development of lavender microplants during ten passages also was carried out, as the level of stability of regeneration processes throughout several cycles of a miсrograftage is one of important factors on which efficiency of microreproduction depends. We have also shown, that the efficiency of reproduction remains at the stable level of the sort named Sineva and sample #3379 to the 8th passage (1:7,7712,45 and 1:7,6011,85 respectively), at the variety called Stepnaya  to the 7th passage (1:6,1011,81), at the sample #31017  to the 6th passage (1:6,178,37)