№ 109(5), May, 2015
Public date: 29.05.2015
Archive of journal: Articles count 88, 161 kb

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionThe quality of a system is seen as an emergent property of systems, due to their composition and structure, and it reflects their functionality, reliability and cost. Therefore, when we speak about quality management, the purpose of management is the formation of predefined system properties of the object of management. The stronger the object of the control expresses its system properties, the stronger the nonlinearity manifests of the object: both the dependence of the management factors from each other, and the dependence of the results of the action of some factors from the actions of others. Therefore, the problem of quality management is that in the management process the management object itself changes qualitatively, i.e. it changes its level of consistency, the degree of determinism and the transfer function itself. This problem can be viewed as several tasks: First is the system identification of the condition of the object of management, 2nd – making decisions about controlling influence that changes the composition of the control object in a way its quality maximally increases at minimum costs. To solve the 2nd problem we have proposed an application of the component selection of the object by functions based on the resources allocated for the implementation of different functions; costs associated with the choice of the components and the degree of compliance of various components to their functional purpose. In fact, we have proposed a formulation and a solution of the new generalization of a variant of the assignment problem: "multi backpack", which differs from the known with the fact that the selection has been based not only on the resources and costs, but also with taking into account the degree of compliance of the components to their functional purpose. A mathematical model, which provides a solution to the 1st problem, and reflecting the degree of compliance of the components to their functionality, as well as the entire decisionmaking process for selections, i.e. 2nd task, has been implemented in the ASCanalysis and in the system called "Eidos" X++". The article also provides a simplified numerical example of the proposed approach with the selection of staff members

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionAccording to the new paradigm of applied mathematical statistics one should prefer nonparametric methods and models. However, in applied statistics we currently use a variety of parametric models. The term "parametric" means that the probabilisticstatistical model is fully described by a finitedimensional vector of fixed dimension, and this dimension does not depend on the size of the sample. In parametric statistics the estimation problem is to estimate the unknown value (for statistician) of parameter by means of the best (in some sense) method. In the statistical problems of standardization and quality control we use a threeparameter family of gamma distributions. In this article, it is considered as an example of the parametric distribution family. We compare the methods for estimating the parameters. The method of moments is universal. However, the estimates obtained with the help of method of moments have optimal properties only in rare cases. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) belongs to the class of the best asymptotically normal estimates. In most cases, analytical solutions do not exist; therefore, to find MLE it is necessary to apply numerical methods. However, the use of numerical methods creates numerous problems. Convergence of iterative algorithms requires justification. In a number of examples of the analysis of real data, the likelihood function has many local maxima, and because of that natural iterative procedures do not converge. We suggest the use of onestep estimates (OSestimates). They have equally good asymptotic properties as the maximum likelihood estimators, under the same conditions of regularity that MLE. Onestep estimates are written in the form of explicit formulas. In this article it is proved that the onestep estimates are the best asymptotically normal estimates (under natural conditions). We have found OSestimates for the gamma distribution and given the results of calculations using data on operating time to limit state for incisors

FORECASTING OF THE DYNAMICS OF THELABOR FORCE USING AN INTERSECTORAL MATHEMATICAL MODEL
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn this article we have proposed an intersectoral mathematical model of selforganization of the labor market. This model is the system of balance equations of the dynamics of the labor force. The model contains parameters that show where workers were employed in previous times. Therefore it is possible to monitor the dynamics of intersectoral labor force over a long period of time. It has been shown that the model allows to solve the problem of forecasting the number of employed and unemployed in the labor market under the assumption that the parameters of the probabilistic model are constant for a certain period. The use of the model is illustrated on the example in which the probabilities of hiring and firing of employees were calculated, as well as the probabilities that the employees in the analyzed period (2011 – 2012 years) leave the labor market. The forecast of the number of employed and unemployed at the end of the next period (2013) is based on the calculated probabilities. It has been demonstrated that the deviation of the predicted values from the statistical data is not significant, which witnesses about the efficiency of the forecast

CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS OF TIME BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROCONVECTION IN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionThe aim of this work is to carry out numerical analysis of time behavior of electroconvection in membrane systems, such as a desalting channel of electrodialysis apparatus. The currentvoltage curve and the solution flaw were analyzed theoretically using mathematical models of ions transfer taking into account electroconvection in smooth desalting channel consisting of ideally selective anion and cationexchange membranes. The Hurst numbers for different parts of the currentvoltage curve were calculated in order to determine whether the parts were persistent. The Fourieranalysis of the oscillating term of the currentvoltage curve was carried out for the first time so as to determine predominant frequencies in the signal. Frequencies of passing of complexes of vortexes through the crosssection of the desalting channel were calculated. Frequencies of oscillations of concentration profiles were determined. It was found that the frequencies of oscillations of the concentration profiles coincide with the frequencies of passing of complexes of vortexes through the crosssection of the desalting channel. The oscillations of the currentvoltage curve were physically interpreted. Namely, it was shown that the main frequency of oscillations of the currentvoltage curve corresponds to the frequency of oscillations of the concentration profiles. The oscillations of the concentration profiles, produced by the passing of complexes of vortexes, cause oscillations of conductivity and, consequently, cause oscillations of resistance and of the current density. It was shown that the main frequency of the signal corresponds to the frequency of passing of complexes of vortexes through the crosssection of the desalting channel

EXITATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, NUCLEAR REACTION AND PARTICLES DECAY BY THE ACCELERATION
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionThe article discusses the excitation of electromagnetic radiation, nuclear reactions and decays of particles by the acceleration of charges, atomic nuclei and the macroscopic volumes of matter. The motion of charged particles in a magnetic trap used for plasma confinement was computed. We propose a model of the electromagnetic radiation of a charge moving in a noninertial reference frame in general relativity. We have also constructed a theory of perturbation with using a wave equation with small parameters, taking into account a characteristic radius of the trajectory of the electrons as they move in a magnetic field. It was found that in the first approximation, the radiation backreaction force depends on the acceleration of the charge. For the simulating of processes in hadrons and nuclei we used YangMills theory and the metric, describes the acceleration and rotating reference frame in general relativity. We consider the scalar glueball model for an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity of the system on time. The numerical model of wave propagation in noninertial reference frame for the geometry of system of one, two or three spatial dimensions was tested. In the numerical experiments shown that the acceleration of the system leads to instability, leading to an unlimited increase in the amplitude of waves, which is interpreted as a decay of system. It was found that there are critical values of acceleration above which the instability develops

ABIOTIC PECULIARITIES OF SMALL RIVERS OF THE STEPPE ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION
DescriptionSteppe rivers (Eja, Beysug, Chelbas et al.) occupy a vast AzovKuban plain, whose total length reaches 4800 km and catchment area of the entire hydrological network of up to 24 000 km. Dams and silting increase flooding of agricultural land and many rivers severely degraded with a reduction of its water content and its quality. Landscapes of the steppe zone occupy a middle reaches of the largest rivers  Beysug River, Chelbas, Eja and differ of transaccumulative character and accompanied by numerous beams and small slope that prone to weak erosion. The valleys of the steppe rivers are characterized by high and gentle slopes and floodplains of river slightly wavy and their deep areas are swamped. As a parent rocks it is dominated by loess clay and clay. Features of soil cover are determined by topography. Black soils were formed on the plain, eroded and meadowblack soils are on the slopes, and meadowbog soils  in areas with stagnant water. The climate is characterized by moderate winter and hot summers with insufficient moistened soil and low air humidity. The vegetation of the river systems of the steppe zone is divided into marsh, meadow, meadowsteppe vegetations and vegetations of saltmarshes. The ichthyofauna of small rivers is very scanty that is determined by the hydrological regime. Plowing of lands along the water bodies, the development of wind and water erosion is typical for steppe rivers; therefore siltation and overgrowing of rivers are widespread

SOIL DEGRADATION AND THE ROLE OF FOREST BELTS IN LAND MELIORATION
DescriptionSoil degradation (erodere – eat away, lat.)  a process in which result pieces of rocks and soil are separated from of their initial location. Is then transferred and deposited in some new place. The factors of erosion are water, wind, landslides, rock particles and etc. Erosion is the process of destruction and demolition of the soil cover (or parent rocks) flows of water or wind what causes depletion of fertile top soil layer. The destruction of this layer occurs quickly, and for its restoration required the millennium. Reduction of soil fertility is one of the main problems that are associated with its pollution. Erosion is a natural process that occurs very slowly ever since as the Earth was formed (about 4550 billion years ago). Realistically, mountains, valleys, plains and deltas on Earth's surface have been created by water and wind erosion as a result of their joint action over a long period of time. Geological erosion was acted at a slow pace for hundreds of years. With the emergence of the human occurred of invasion species which could transform their natural environment. Artificial type of erosion, which acts much faster than the natural erosion, was formed with the appearance human

THE APPLICATION OF EXOGENOUS ELICITORS IN AGRICULTURE
DescriptionIn recent years, there is an increasing in crop losses from pests and diseases of plants worldwide. The use of different pesticides in intensive cultivation technologies of winter wheat can not resist it. Pathogenic microorganisms acquire resistance to drugs used and become more aggressive. This creates a lot of environmental problems. Plants are almost always under environmental stress. In this state, they are immunodeficient. However, it is impossible to reject pesticides completely. But pesticides are not able to replace the immune system of the plant, and in some cases are suppressing it. The article provides an overview of commonly used exogenous elicitors. We discuss the most important results of the joint use of the composition of preparations of eliciting action which are furolan and methionine. The present level of development of science has led to the emergence of new methods of plant protection, which is based on increasing the capacity of the immune plants, rather than the destruction of pathogens, as in the case of the use of pesticides. The yield increase by the use of biogenic elicitors as immunizers from 10 to 30% depending on the year, the varieties of plants and especially on infectious pathogens. The elicitors are used for soil treatment, seed soaking and plants, spraying the plants during the vegetation

METHODS OF ASSESSING THE COMPETENCE OF EXPERTS
DescriptionThe article is devoted to an actual problem: increasing of reliability of expert estimates, due to attraction in group of the most competent experts for carrying out examination. The analysis of application of expert estimation in the field of operation of corporate and telecommunication networks is provided in the article. The technique of an assessment of competence of experts is offered. When assessing the competence of experts the following factors were considered: specialization of the expert, an experience and experience of its work in the field, scientific qualification, existence of scientific works on a perspective of carrying out examination. For identification of a priority of factors at determination of competence of experts it is offered to use a method of the analysis of hierarchies. The necessary number of experts for carrying out examination of objects is defined on the basis of application of the statistical analysis

DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION
DescriptionThe article is devoted to the solution of actual problems of protection of the population from noise production facilities. It shows the various fundamental technological approaches to the implementation of noise protection measures. This work conducts a comparative assessment of technical solutions aimed at reducing the levels of radiated noise, providing increased noise impact on the territory, from the gas distribution station (GDS). Production facilities everywhere are equipped with noisy equipment. If the noise level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (RC), they sound events. The most common design decisions noise protection for today are: sound design; noise screens and barriers; insulating housings; sound cab. The article discusses the insulating properties of different coatings, composition and device of acoustic screens. It describes the course of the design work noisereducing measures aimed at reducing noise levels in a residential area adjacent to the territory of one of the gas distribution stations (GDS). The description of the algorithm calculations, selection of materials for the implementation of activities, the combination of technical solutions that have practical novelty. The article is an exploratory in nature. At each stage of the embodiment of the design decisions were changes in the level of noise and the sound spectrum in the frequency range of 31.5 to 8000 Hz, evaluation of the effectiveness of the protective measures and the analysis of the influence of acoustic impact on the population. The results were presented for the year of research. The results of the research indicated graphically demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in a residential area