№ 131(7), September, 2017
Public date: 29.09.2017
Archive of journal: Articles count 124, 307 kb

01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
THE RATIONALE FOR THE USE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD IN THE PRODUCTION OF SUNFLOWER OIL
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn some works, the feasibility of the use of fixed and variable electromagnetic fields of different frequencies and tension in the production technology of sunflower oil are shown, but there is no theoretical justification. The possibility of electromagnetic effects is associated with the presence of polar molecules specific to organic systems. Without prejudice to the role of polar groups of terrestrial circuits, this work tries to address this challenge more comprehensively. The reason for this is the distinctive feature of the behavior of sunflower during its flowering. This characteristic is that the sunflower hat during the day changes its direction in accordance with the direction of movement of the Sun across the sky; so called "magnetism" of their attraction. To justify this effect, we have analyzed the essence of emitted photons, the Sun chemical composition and structure arrangement of seeds in a sunflower hat. Particles of light from the Sun represent a stream of photons  a wide range of electromagnetic waves of frequencies that exhibit and magnetic properties. The article shows principal macro and micronutrients of sunflower raw materials and divides them into groups of para , dia , and ferromagnetic materials. In sunflower seeds, there are chemical elements: diamagnetismC, H, N, P, S, B, Cu, Zn, J; paramagnetismO, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, As and ferromagneticiron (Fe). As there is resultant force of the magnetic attraction between the sunflower hat and magnetic flow of photons from the Sun, this effect dominates the action of paramagnetics K2O ( 28.4 24.5%), CaO (7.617.0)%, MgO (12.317.9%), magnetized in an external magnetic field in the direction of the field. The presence of evident effect demonstrates that it is possible to improve a number of technological operations in the manufacture of sunflower oil using electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields

SIMULATION OF A STEPPED LIGHTNING LEADER
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIn this work, a model is developed that describes the formation of a stepped lightning leader in a conducting medium. To describe the contribution of the conductivity currents, we modified the standard electrostatic equation taking into account the vortex component of the electric field. As a result of this generalization, a system of parabolictype nonlinear equations is formulated that describes the formation of streamers and the lightning channel. Numerical simulation of the propagation of ionization waves in a region with a ratio of 1/100, 1/200 allows us to identify two types of stepped streamers in the form of waves of compression and rarefaction, respectively. It was previously established that there are three streamer branching mechanisms. The first mechanism is related to the instability of the front, which leads to the separation of the head of the streamer into two parts. The second mechanism is associated with the instability of the streamer in the base region, which leads to the branching of the streamer with the formation of a large number of lateral streamers closing the main channel of the streamer to the cathode. In numerical experiments, the third branching mechanism observed in experiments connected with closing the space charge to the anode through the streamer system was observed. These branching mechanisms are also revealed when the leader is propagated. The obtained results, as well as the data of numerical experiments confirm the hypothesis of the universality of the minimal model of the streamer, as well as its expansion in the form proposed by the author. Known phenomena of nature associated with the electrical discharge  streamer, plasmoid, ball lightning and stepped leader can be described within the framework of the minimal model

ASYMPTOTICS OF ESTIMATES OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION DENSITY
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionNonparametric estimates of the probability distribution density in spaces of arbitrary nature are one of the main tools of nonnumerical statistics. Their particular cases are considered  kernel density estimates in spaces of arbitrary nature, histogram estimations and FixHodgestype estimates. The purpose of this article is the completion of a series of papers devoted to the mathematical study of the asymptotic properties of various types of nonparametric estimates of the probability distribution density in spaces of general nature. Thus, a mathematical foundation is applied to the application of such estimates in nonnumerical statistics. We begin by considering the mean square error of the kernel density estimate and, in order to maximize the order of its decrease, the choice of the kernel function and the sequence of the blur indicators. The basic concepts are the circular distribution function and the circular density. The order of convergence in the general case is the same as in estimating the density of a numerical random variable, but the main conditions are imposed not on the density of a random variable, but on the circular density. Next, we consider other types of nonparametric density estimates  histogram estimates and FixHodgestype estimates. Then we study nonparametric regression estimates and their application to solve discriminant analysis problems in a general nature space

THE REALIZATION OF GALOIS GROUPS BY TRINOMIALS OVER THE FIELD OF RATIONAL NUMBERS Q
01.00.00 Physicalmathematical sciences
DescriptionIt is known that not every finite group can be realized over the field of rational numbers as a Galois group of some binomial. In this connection, a more general question arises: suppose that there is given a finite transitive subgroup G of the symmetric group S on n symbols; Can this group G be realized as a Galois group of some trinomial of degree n over the field of rational numbers? In this paper we prove that every transitive subgroup of the group S can be realized in the form of the Galois group of a certain trinomial of the degree n, for the values n = 2, 3, 4. For n = 5 , 6 we give examples that realize concrete Galois groups. In the case n = 7, all the transitive subgroups of the group S are realized, except possibly one group of the isomorphic dihedral group D. Further calculations will be directed to the realization of specific Galois groups for n = 8, 9 ..., however, the number of transitive subgroups of the group S for n = 8, 9 ... grows very fast, so the larger the value of n, the more difficult it is to realize not just everything but the specific subgroup of the group S in the form of a trinomial over Q

Description
Surface energy of polymers determines such important properties of polymers like wetability, adhesion, ability adsorption of low molecular weight substances. Inner organization, the structure of the polymer and the dynamics of interaction between macromolecular chains are shown at last. At the same time, the microdefects (inhomogeneity) of polymers, which is an integral part of the structure are changed during deformation and must contribute to changing of the surface energy and its components. This article solves the task of detecting changes in the parameters of surface energy of polymers under uniaxial deformation. Data for the quantitative indicators of the surface properties total surface energy and its dispersive and polar components are presented. The calculations showed that the disperse and polar components of all the samples of polymer materials are about 98% of the total and, therefore, is crucial. For the first time experimental data, illustrating the change of surface energy of polymeric materials had been obtained, including elastomeric compositions, when uniaxial deformation. The relative changes of the surface energy vary from 54.5 per cent to 125 %. A decrease of total surface energy and its dispersion component is observed during deformation of polymer samples of different structure and chemical nature

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MODEL OF CALCULATIONS OF VALUES OF ATOMIC RADIUMS
DescriptionThe article presents the results of studies of changes in the atomic radii of the elements of the periodic table, depending on their atomic masses. It is shown that the appearance of p and dorbitals introduces a significant contribution to the value of the atomic radius, and the appearance of forbitals makes a significantly smaller contribution to the given value. A radialmass model of calculations of atomic radii for the elements of the Periodic Table was developed. Optimal conditions for making calculations were chosen. For the first time the values of atomic radii for elements with the order number 103120 are calculated. It is shown that the values of atomic radii for elements with the order number 103120 are in the range from 140 to 335 picometers and regularly change in the period

Description
The article presents the results of studies of changes in the atomic radii of isotopes of the elements of the periodic table. With using the massradial model of calculations, the values of atomic radii for isotopes of chemical elements were obtained. It is shown that the atomic radius of different isotopes of one element is different and depends on the mass and radius of the nucleus. To study the changes in ∆Rav values in the groups and periods of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements, the ∆Rav dependences on the period number and group number are constructed. It is found that the values depending on the number ∆Rav period / group for the delements lie in the low ∆Rav values for selements  in high ∆Rav values, and pelements  in average values ∆Rav. It is shown that when the atomic nucleus is increased by 1 neutron, the atomic radius increases from 0.01 to 4.76 pm, which is due to the physical effect inside the atom

CATALOGING IMAGES OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE WIGG.) WITH FASCIATION
DescriptionThe phenomenon of fasciation on the example of a higher plant called “Taraxacum officinale Wigg” has been considered. The effect of fasciation on the various particularities of plants has been shown. There are numerous examples of the different fasciation types of present plant’s type which are growing in different ecological areas. We have demonstrated that the phenomenon of fasciation exists in natural populations and in areas with development pressures, and it may occur after mechanical damage to plants of Taraxacum officinale. In most cases, fasciation is regarded as an exceptional phenomenon. A number of authors have distinguished fasciation to noninheritable and inheritable. The first is the influence of external factors such as insect damage, injury, weather conditions. The second is caused by internal reasons. The number of regularities was installed that the reproductive bodies of plants are more often fascinated, and thermophilic forms are more likely to have fasciation. Photographic images of various types of fasciation, patterns and diagrams are given. Fasciation can be considered as a marker because of the connection of this phenomenon with the violation of the ecological situation. Plants with morphoses including ones with fasciation of individual organs, can act as indicators of pollution of the natural environment. Thus, the phenomenon of fasciation affects many areas of science, such as ecology, morphogenesis, genetic monitoring. The possibility of studying the phenomenon of fasciation on a model object of dandelion is shown. As a methodical approach to the study of this phenomenon, it is proposed to create a database of images, in this way it would be cataloging the image

SEGREGATION OF THE PLANT HEIGHT AT INTERSUBSPECIES HYBRIDS OF THE SECOND GENERATION RICE
DescriptionThe article presents the results of the genetic analysis of the trait ‘plant height’ for six crosses involving the forms related to different subspecies of rice. There have been estimated the types of inheritance and a number of genes, which assist to determine this quantitative trait. We have found out that the variance of the trait ‘plant height’ is determined by 35 pairs of genes having additive and dominant activities and the degree of dominance reduces in case the variance among parental forms increases. The nonallelic interaction of the genes of the initial forms produces transgressive dwarf and tall forms. The cross ‘Lampo’x’Virazh’ showed the highest degree of transgression in ‘plant height’ due to short height of both parental forms (61.7%), but the frequency of transgression was larger than that of the cross ‘Lampo’x’Komandor’(17.6%). This combination (‘Lampo’x’Komandor’) produced more tall forms (up to 135 cm). The segregation of a great number of tall forms into F2 testifies that the parental forms of these hybrids vary in the allelic state of several pairs of genes, whose various combinations form phenotypes with a longer stem. Thus, the semidwarf feature of the varieties ‘Lampo’, ‘Komandor’ and ‘Virazh’ is determined by various nonallelic genes

Description
In the Southern Federal University on the genetic basis of sunflower inbred line 3629, a collection of plastid mutants with varying degrees of chlorophyll deficiency was created by inducing Nnitrosomethylurea. Chlorophyll content was associated with their photosynthetic activity. It was found that the lower the chlorophylls content in mutant plastids, the lower the sugar concentration in plant tissues. For example, during the entire period of plant growth for whites (1.03.0 % chlorophylls a+b from control) var 10, var17 and yellows (6.09.5 % chlorophylls a+b from control) var29, var33 leaf areas of variegated mutants depending on the development phase and the content of green pigments are characterized by a low (27 fold) sugar content. Yellowgreen (75.5% chlorophylls a + b from control) leaves of en:chlorina 7 contain a higher level of carbohydrates, although it is 1.52 fold lower than at line 3629. Monosaccharides are products of hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by β glycosidases. It was shown, that the activity level of β galactosidase and βglucosidase exceeded the corresponding indicators of the control at 1.52 and 27 fold, respectively. Similarly to enzymes from the watersoluble fraction, membranebound β glycosidases also showed increased activity in the leaves of the investigated mutants, compared to the control green plants of 3629. Consequently, the activity of βglycosidases increases dramatically in leaf tissues with deficiency of photosynthetic. Thus, chlorophyll mutations can lead to a change in the expression of nuclear genes, resulting in a significant increase in the activity of βglycosidases in the mutant organelles themselves