Novocherkassk Engineering Meliorative Institute named after A.K. Kortunov
Author list of organization
List of articles written by the authors of the organization

HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF LINEARLY DISTRIBUTED RELEASES OF STORED WATER DISCHARGES
DescriptionThe purpose of the article is to develop methods for hydraulic design of extreme discharges and water depths in critical gage lines of waterways diverting water from spillways for the accepted law to regulate linearly distributed releases of stored water discharges. The task of control for linearly distributed releases of stored water discharges is based on hydraulic design for the process of propagation and transformation of long waves described with Saint Venant equations. These equations are nonlinear and have no accurate solution in general case. To get approximate solutions they are linearized. It is established that the task of integration for these equations supposes to get their preliminary solution in the form of complete integral. Applying the complete integral theory we get analytical solution that describe the process of transformation for one direction waves moving in infinitely long prism canal of semibounded extent with initial uniform regime of water flow. An example of changes in both water discharge and flow depths in two fixed downstream gage lines of hydraulic works at the distance of 5000 and 10000 m from the initial gage line is presented. Hydraulic design was carried out according to the derived analytical formulas accepted as an example classical method of characteristics that is considered as analogous. Comparison of the design results on two methods allowed to determine the maximum relative error that does not exceeds 3,5 % for the design discharges and water depths. Introduction of the developed method for hydraulic design of linearly distributed releases of discharges in waterways diverting water from spillways will make it possible to optimize idle and nontechnological stored water discharges

TO THE QUESTION OF PHENOLOGY OF СONVALLARIA MAJALIS L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE DON
DescriptionFor the conservation of biodiversity, this study of patterns of biological processes and phases in the development of Convallaria majalis L. that are repeated annually becomes actual. In the article, we have presented an analysis of five years of observations of the rhythm of the development of Convallaria majalis L. in the conditions of the middle Don. There were allocated phenological phases of lily of the valley: vegetative (beginning of sprout growth, deploying of leaves), bud formation, flowering (disclosure of the first flower, mass blossoming, the withering of separate flowers, the ending of flowering), fruitage (the beginning of fruit setting, mass of fruit setting, mass ripening of fruits), the end of the vegetation (appearance of the first changes in color of leaves, the complete drying). We have defined daily average temperature and the appropriate amount of positive temperatures for the passage of various phases of development Convallaria majalis L. By the results of two growing seasons, the optimal daily average temperature for the flowering period is 14,3 ° C (the sum of average daily temperatures 161,3204, 0С)  until 915 days. At higher daily air temperatures flowering begins at lower amount of positive and effective temperatures after 4045 days after the start of the vegetation. At lower daily air temperatures flowering is longer than at higher. In the conditions of the middle Don there were allocated some examples of Convallaria majalis L. which bloom two years in a row

Description
The article contains a scientifically based approach to assessing and improving the reliability of DMU "Frigate" in the conditions of the Rostov region. The studied parameters for the elements with the lowest resource were: mean time between failure, mean time to repair, probability of failure, the parameter flow of failures, failure rate, actual and allowable factors of readiness. The analysis of the main faults of DMU "Frigate", identified nodes and elements, characterized by the low reliability, for which the dependences of probabilities of failurefree operation, as well as the dependence and developed the procedure for calculating the optimal duration of recovery of failed elements, to ensure acceptable availability. Statistics on major faults refuse items were collected over the three irrigation seasons from 2013 to 2015, were investigated failures due to wear of the elements for 17 irrigation machines. As a result of the research we developed mathematical apparatus of calculation and the comparative assessment of the readiness of the parks sprinklers of various farms to perform their processing functions at the same and different number of machines. We obtained the dependence for determining the allowable duration of the recovery elements that will allow you to determine the main directions of improving the reliability of DMU "Frigate" during the operational phase

06.00.00 Agricultural sciences
DescriptionThe accumulation of heavy metals was studied in different component parts of a White squash (skin and flesh, flesh, seed skin, seed kernel, peduncle). It is known that the basic source of feed for agricultural crops are mobile water soluble organic and mineral soil combinations which are polluted by heavy metals in different degrees. In the process of their migration they are able to accumulate in different parts of plants or to disperse. The mechanism of quantitative estimation of migration of heavy metals in direction of removal of mobile water soluble soil combinations to various parts of a White squash is developed by the author. The ranks of mobility of heavy metals are made from the most mobile manganese to the most indifferent iron. The model of estimation of mobility of the rest spectrum of heavy metals is chosen, namely: lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt in relation to manganese and iron. Basing on the position of a separate element in a mobile rank and its concentration it is possible to define the source of entering to a squash fruit. It may be water soluble soil combinations, irrigation water and atmospheric aerosols

FEATURES OF THE CALCULATION OF DEADEND CHANNELS FOR THE CASE OF AUTOMATED IRRIGATION SYSTEM
DescriptionIn this article we consider the method of hydraulic calculation of deadend channels with the numerical solutions of differential equations of motion of water. Deadend channels are of interest for carrying out simulation studies, because they may be used for the simulation of water accounting and water distribution in the domestic interfarm network. In order to improve management of water supply to consumers in the water distribution sites, in many irrigation systems there is an additional capacity in the form of a regulation pool. The applied method of active control of light distribution is expected to use the existing capacity of irrigation canals with automatic regulators to block the plants. When there is a complete disconnection of water consumers, the volumes in pools of water irrigation channel are redistributed to provide the command area in the water distribution nodes at any given time. This result can be achieved by automatic control of the level changes in individual pools of the channel in order to redistribute the volumes to backup pools of individual. Search and selection of the necessary rule of automatic controls can achieve the following objectives: to implement effective processes and management of water supply regulation in the specified node; maximize the use of volume tail water channels, preventing the threat of overflow channels; minimize the loss of irrigation water discharge

CALCULATION OF THE UNSTEADY WATER LINE IN THE KRASNODAR SUBURBAN CHANNEL FOR WATER MEASUREMENT
DescriptionLow level of water accounting and poor control in water distribution in the irrigation system are the main negative factors of industrial influence on irrigated natural complexes. Complex ecosystem way to control water resources involves qualitative improvement and optimization of all parts and elements of irrigation system, from the headwater pool, main channels to local water distribution channels. In this regard, when engineering, constructing, using some new and reconstructed old irrigated systems, the most important problems are the optimization of water use from natural water resources, development and use of highly efficient watersaving and energysaving technologies of water distribution and water use in the irrigation system. The problem of economical and efficient consumption of water resources on the studied water complex cannot be solved successfully without any related consideration of water accounting and water consumption questions based on system principles. System principles are supposed to collect, analyze and use the information, with the help of complex technical means, which are used for water measurement in conditions of water charges, and for the purpose to control the technological processes of water supply and water drainage, when the needs of water users are satisfied and the environment get less damage. In the work, we study the mathematical calculation of the unsteady water line in the Krasnodar suburban channel for water measurement. The imitated research of hydraulic processes were carried out on the mathematical model of water measurement, based on the characteristic methods, with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of the initial characteristics. The use of the considered method of water measurement in irrigation channels with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of initial characteristics will allow to optimize the processes of water measurement and to minimize idle and nontechnological discharges of water from the system

ESTIMATION AND SELECTION OF THE MOST OPTIMAL VARIANT DRAINING PONDS
DescriptionThis article gives estimation of drying (liquidation) ponds with subsequent selection of the most optimal variant. For example, ponds № 1, 2 have the calculations for the four drainage options: bottom outlet, using a mobile diesel pumping stations, through the siphon outlet, as well as the combined option of draining (via a bottom outlet and mobile pumping stations). The results of the calculation for each of the cases were examined; the article summarizes the estimated parameters, which allow to visualize and choose the most optimal variant of drying, depending on the time of evacuation

Description
The article considers the mathematical task of calculating the transient flow of water in the regulation of concentrated releases of water discharges on stream flows in lower tails of spillway waterworks. An algorithm, analytical solutions based on hydraulic calculations of the process of propagation and transformation of long waves described by SaintVenant equations are constituted. These equations are nonlinear and have no exact solutions. To obtain approximate solutions these equations are linearized. The efficiency of spillways depends on how accurately hydraulic processes characteristics are measured. Control and direct measurement of characteristics of hydraulic processes in natural conditions is difficult, which requires applying methods of mathematical modeling and simulation studies of transient processes, which are based on the algorithms of functioning of transient hydraulic processes control. Introduction of the developed method for hydraulic calculation of discharge releases to streams, diverting the water from water discharge structures, allows optimize idle and nontechnological discharges of water from reservoirs. Considering the highly dynamic nature of the water flow in the lower tails of the dams at concentrated releases of water discharges from reservoirs, development of new methods of hydraulic calculation of extreme discharges and water depths at the critical sections of watercourses with transient regime of water flow is an important task