25.00.00 Sciences about Earth

TO THE QUESTION OF ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF GEODETIC NETWORKS OF A QUADRANGLE WITH MEASURED SIDES
DescriptionThe article presents the weighting function for the points within the geodetic network. The obtained system of equations is solved by the method of least squares. In the result of solving the system of equations we found the original formula for calculation of reverse weights of any point in the geodetic network

ON IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF FILLING GEODETIC NETWORKS OF QUADRANGLES
DescriptionThe article considers the issue of increasing the accuracy of filling geodetic networks of quadrangles with measured by the parties by increasing the number of conditional equations. We have considered the three variants of placement of additionally measured diagonals of the squares. The results improve the accuracy in the determination of coordinates of points within the network, due to these additional measured elements

Description
Prospects of development of oilextracting branch of the Krasnodar region are connected with continuation of prospecting works and search drilling in a zone of transit of the Kuban River and water areas of the Black and Azov seas. In the existing normative documents about technical researches we didn't find reflection of the rule of works on platforms of capital construction of wells on the earth and in transitional conditions. The technique of studying of engineeringgeological features of territories of oil and gas fields is offered. Regional and zone factors of engineeringgeological conditions of oil and gas fields are established. Engineeringgeological structures are allocated. Additional types of technical researches are defined

LOCALIZATION FEATURES OF GEOCHEMICAL TYPES OF UNDERGROUND WATER OF OBTOMSKOYE INTERFLUVIAL
DescriptionThe chemical composition of neogenquaternary, paleogene, cretaceous and paleozoic aquifer systems in the ObTomskoye interfluves area is presented in the article. The water saturation with respect to secondary minerals is described. Authors show that the waters of all studied aquifer systems are saturated with respect to montmorillonites and calcite in a less degree. The geochemical water types are identified and their distribution is described

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMIC ACID SOILS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION
DescriptionThe structural and functional properties of humic acids of different types of poorly studied soils of the Krasnodar Region: ordinary black soil or chernozem (carbonated), meadowish chernozem and gray forest soils are investigated. We define the type of humus of the soil samples studied as fulvatehumate. Using traditional indicators of humus soil conditions the regularities of soil and ecological processes involving organic matter in soils under natural and anthropogenically factorial changes in the monitoring sites are revealed. The relationship of the optical properties of humic acids with the intensity of the processes of transformation of humic substances by increasing the depth of the soil sample is shown. By NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry in the visible spectrum differences and similarities in the structure of macromolecules of humic acids in soil samples. In terms of soil contamination with oil in a field experiment, on the monitoring site we have set a trend towards to redistribution in the ratio of functional groups of humic acid macromolecules: the proportion of aliphatic fragments increases. We have revealed an increase in the share of the mobile fraction of humic substances in terms of oil pollution. The article has the most suitable justification for these processes. The results can be used for prediction the environmental state of the soil under anthropogenic pollution

Description
Within the TerekSunzha gas area we have identified patterns, most of which are divided into blocks in some cases with large amplitude shear. The processes of destruction of structures took place during the period of their formation and the subsequent time and due to the strong and catastrophic earthquakes. The article provides a statistical analysis of strong earthquakes in this region during the period 16882008 and the regularities of their existence. It is shown that the maximum number of earthquakes took place during the period of the depths of 512 km and the distribution of the number of strong earthquakes at levels subject to certain matematical patterns. With regard to the analysis of the distribution of earthquakes in a single year in the whole of the globe, we obtained the correlation of the displacement of rocks from levels of existence of earthquakes and possible displacement of rocks to very catastrophic earthquakes. We have also given the forecast frequency and the number of strong catastrophic earthquakes for the period from the beginning of the formation of structures up to the present time. We assessed maximum displacements of rock blocks during this time, which is in good agreement with the actual values of the displacement of rock blocks

CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA: TENDENCIES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR PREDICTION
DescriptionWhat we have analyzed in the article is the spatial structure of the surface air temperature and precipitation amount fields in the Black Sea Region. Spatial correlation method is applied to reveal teleconnections between surface air temperature and precipitation measured at the meteorological stations of the region from one hand and globally averaged surface air temperature and atmospheric circulation indecies from the other hand. Atmospheric circulation indecies – North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Oscillation «North Sea – Northern Caspian Sea» (NCP) – determine to a great extent regional temperature and precipitation regime. The goal of the current research is to establish probable causes and mechanisms influencing regional climatic variations and examining of possible connections of the latter with the global climate change. It is demonstrated that relations between air temperature and precipitation at particular stations in the region and global temperature are weak and ambigous. At the same time, temperature and precipitation regimes are affected by changes of phases of NAO and NCP. It means that global warming has no direct effect on the regional climate. More probably, global warming influences the regional climate through the changes in the atmospheric circulation pattern in the particular region

MAKING OF CARTOGRAPHIC MODELS FOR CLIMATIC BACKGROUND OF MAYMA RIVER BASIN
DescriptionThe article is devoted to the study of the spatial distribution of air temperature, precipitation and their ratio in the form of moisturizing factor of the Mayma river basin. Calculations of the vertical and horizontal gradients are hold. Cartographic models of the distribution basic climatic indices are also constructed

THE ISSUES OF EQUALIZATION OF GEODETIC CHAIN OF QUADRANGLES
DescriptionThe article examines the development of a planned study on the clearings and roads in builtup and forested areas, as well as for building networks. Most often, it is recommended to use the method without diagonal quadrangles, where in each figure measured all four corners and the length of one of the parties, and in the first and last rectangles – four corners and two sides. The length of the other sides is obtained by computing, previously having leveraged the angles in the quadrilaterals. The disadvantage of this method is the adjustment of such circuits in a simplified manner, namely: the distribution of residuals arising in the augmentation of coordinates fx and fy equally to all augmentation. The article proposes formulas of Gauss for direct angular notches to make the conditional equation of directional angles, deciding which method of least squares, find the amendments to the measured directional angles. Introducing these amendments, I get the coordinates of the desired points of successive angular intersection. As it may be seen from preliminary calculations, the errors resulting from the use of differential corrections in the coordinates are very small and may not have a significant influence on the measurement result

HOW TO ESTIMATE THE ACCURACY OF DETERMINING THE COORDINATES IN THE APPROACH OF HANSEN
DescriptionRecently, there have been satellitebased methods widely used to determine the coordinates of points, which allow, without mutual visibility between points, to pursue their coordinates. However, in some cases, for example in forests, in urban buildings the application of these methods becomes a problem and it is easier to apply traditional methods. The article describes the case of using the method of calculation of coordinates for "the approach of Hansen" and held to evaluate the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the points. Some studies provide only recommendation guidelines that the most accurate results are obtained when the shape of the building is shaped similar to a square. In our case, on the basis of obtained formulae we had an analysis of the influence of the length of the corresponding base, and its distance from the source side on the accuracy of determination of coordinates of the original points. The conclusion is that the accuracy of determination of coordinates of required points depends on the ratio of the length of the original basis and the baseline. The optimal can be considered the distance equal to 0.30.6 of the length of the baseline. The holding data in the study can successfully be used for the drafting of geodetic reference polygonometries moves and thickening of networks